The first highlighted the importance of personal interests related to science, and the second noted the importance of helping learners come to identify with science as an endeavor they want to seek out, engage in, and perhaps contribute to.
Others have investigated curricular approaches and instructional practices that are matched to national standards [ 52 ] or are focused on model-based inquiry [ 24 ]. It can be carried out by a variety of pedagogical techniques, sequences of activities, and ordering of topics.
Instruction throughout K education is likely to develop science proficiency if it provides students with opportunities for a range of scientific activities and scientific thinking, including, but not limited to: For example, because decisions about the use of a particular technology raise issues of costs, risks, and benefits, the associated societal and environmental impacts require a broader discussion.
Thus students ultimately understand, regarding both their own work and the historical record, that predictions or explanations can Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Furthermore, students use them together when engaging in scientific tasks.
Instruction encompasses the activities of both teachers and students. What technology or simulation tools can aid student learning? Strand 2 encompasses the knowledge and practices needed to build and refine models and to provide explanations conceptual, computational, and mechanistic based on scientific evidence.
Although the strands are useful for thinking about proficiencies that students need to develop, as framed they do not describe in any detail what it is that students need to learn and practice.
Curriculum, Instruction, Teacher Development, and Assessment. They come to see themselves as members of a scientific community in which they test ideas, develop shared representations and models, and reach consensus.
This perspective stresses how conceptual understanding is linked to the ability to develop explanations of phenomena and to carry out empirical investigations in order to develop or evaluate those knowledge claims.
Students grow in their understanding of particular phenomena as well as in their appreciation of the ways in which the construction of models and refinement of arguments contribute to the improvement of explanations [ 2955 ]. In addition, explicit reference to each crosscutting concept will recur frequently and in varied contexts across disciplines and grades.
Thus they cannot guide standards, curricula, or assessment without further specification of the knowledge and practices that students must learn. Knowing, using, and interpreting scientific explanations of the natural world.
The extent of each alternative varies, depending on the initial ideas that students bring to learning and their consequent needs for scaffoldingthe nature of the content involved, and the available curriculum support. Teaching science and engineering without reference to their rich variety of human stories, to the puzzles of the past and how they were solved, and to the issues of today that science and engineering must help address would be a major omission.
When students understand how scientific knowledge is developed over systematic observations across multiple investigations, how it is justified and critiqued on the basis of evidence, and how it is validated by the larger scientific community, the students then recognize that science entails the search for core explanatory constructs and the connections between them [ 57 ].
Table summarizes how the strands of scientific literacy guided the design of the dimensions in the framework. Students need opportunities, with increasing sophistication across the grade levels, to consider not only the applications and implications of science and engi-neering in society but also the nature of the human endeavor of science and engineering themselves.
It is also important that curricula provide opportunities for discussions that help students recognize that some science- or engineering-related questions, such as ethical decisions or legal codes for what should or should not be done in a given situation, have moral and cultural underpinnings that vary across cultures.
This will require substantial redesign of current and future curricula [ 3031 ]. Similarly, the science and engineering practices delineated in this framework should become familiar as well to students through increasingly sophisticated experiences with them across grades K-8 [ 2829 ].
Similarly, through discussion and reflection, students can come to realize that scientific inquiry embodies a set of values. To engage productively in science, however, students need to understand how to participate in scientific discussions, how to adopt a critical stance while respecting the contributions of others, and how to ask questions and revise their own opinions [ 62 ].
Or is it best conveyed through an investigation? Instruction may involve teacher talk and questioning, or teacher-led activities, or collaborative small-group investigations [ 63 ], or student-led activities. Perspectives from history and the social and behavioral sciences can enlighten the consideration of such issues; indeed, many of them are addressable either in the context of a social studies course, a science course, or both.
Strand 1 includes the acquisition of facts, laws, principles, theories, and models of science; the development of conceptual structures that incorporate them; and the productive use of these structures to understand the natural world. The National Academies Press. They likewise need to develop an awareness of the careers made possible through scientific and engineering capabilities.
In either case, the importance of argument from evidence is critical. A major question confronting each curriculum developer will be which of the practices and crosscutting concepts to feature in lessons or units around a particular disciplinary core idea so that, across the curriculum, they all receive sufficient attention [ 27 ].
The three dimensions that are developed in this framework—practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas—make that specification and attempt to realize the commitments to the strands of scientific literacy in the four strands.
While standards typically outline the goals of learning, curricula set forth the more specific means—materials, tasks, discussions, representations—to be used to achieve those goals. They believe that steady effort in understanding science pays off—as opposed to erroneously thinking that some people understand science and other people never will.
This strand includes designing empirical investigations and measures for data collection, selecting representations and ways of analyzing the resulting data or data available from other sourcesand using empirical evidence to construct, critique, and defend scientific arguments [ 4556 ].
That report defined the following four strands of proficiency, which it maintained are interwoven in successful science learning: Considerations of the historical, social, cultural, and ethical aspects of science and its applications, as well as of engineering and the technologies it develops, need a place in the natural science curriculum and classroom [ 3233 ].
Participating productively in scientific practices and discourse.These choices occur both in the development of curriculum materials and, as we discuss in the following section, in decisions made by the teacher in planning instruction.
Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: "10 Implementation: Curriculum, Instruction, Teacher Development, and Assessment.". standards and requirements of the class.
At other times, the curriculum can be made more accessible through accommodations. In addition, teaching strategies Select curricular goals specific to the lesson Engineer the physical and social classroom Provide the different instruction and materials to meet a learner’s individual goals.
Teachers can select texts or supplementary materials to address the issue of stereotyping. The supplementary materials should be written by a variety of authors who incorporate a wide range of perspectives on historical events, poetry, artwork, journals, music, and illustrations of women and men, as well as varied ethnic and racial groups.
develop these abilities through instruction based on Best Practice teaching strategies.
affords them the opportunity to identify topics, develop questions, plan inquiry, divide tasks, A differentiated curriculum is one where teachers adapt the curriculum. WHAT TEACHERS SHOULD KNOW ABOUT INSTRUCTION FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS A Report to Washington State November 1, SW Main Street, Suite findings on effective instructional practices for WHAT TEACHERS SHOULD KNOW ABOUT INSTRUCTION FOR.
Teachers are often asked to modify instruction to accommodate special needs students. In fact, all students will benefit from the following good teaching practices. The following article takes the mystery out of adapting materials and strategies for curriculum areas.Download